The Cotard delusion (also Cotard’s Syndrome and Walking Corpse Syndrome) is a rare mental illness in which the afflicted person holds the delusion that he or she is dead, either figuratively or literally; yet said delusion of negation is not a symptom essential to the syndrome proper. Statistical analysis of a hundred-patient cohort indicates that the denial of self-existence is a symptom present in 69 percent of the cases of Cotard’s syndrome; yet, paradoxically, 55 percent of the patients might present delusions of immortality.
Oculogyric crisis (OGC) is the name of a dystonic reaction to certain drugs or medical conditions characterized by a prolonged involuntary upward deviation of the eyes. The term “oculogyric” refers to rotating of eyeballs, but several other responses are associated with the crisis. Epilepsy can manifest as oculogyric seizures, also called versive seizures.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as transient apical ballooning syndrome, apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, Gebrochenes-Herz-Syndrom, and stress cardiomyopathy is a type of non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy in which there is a sudden temporary weakening of the myocardium. Because this weakening can be triggered by emotional stress, such as the death of a loved one, a break-up, or constant anxiety, it is also known as broken heart syndrome. Stress cardiomyopathy is a well-recognized cause of acute heart failure, lethal ventricular arrhythmias, and ventricular rupture.
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Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is the experience of complex visual hallucinations in a person with partial or severe blindness. First described by Charles Bonnet in 1760, it was first introduced into English-speaking psychiatry in 1982.
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More than two million medical students, doctors and other health professionals from around the globe have owned a copy of Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine since it was first published. Today’s readers rely on this beautifully illustrated text to provide up-to-date detail of contemporary medical practice, presented in a style that is concise and yet easy to read. Davidson’s provides the factual knowledge required to practise medicine, explaining it in the context of underlying principles, basic science and research evidence, and shows how to apply this knowledge to the management of patients who present with problems rather than specific diseases. The book has won numerous prizes including being highly commended in the British Medical Association book awards.
Davidson’s global perspective is enhanced by the input of an international team of authors and a distinguished International Advisory Board from 17 countries. Building on the foundations laid down by its original editor, Davidson’s remains one of the world’s leading and most respected textbooks of medicine.
Salter-Harris classification is used to describe fractures involving the epiphyseal (growth) plate of a bone. This type of fractures are commonly found in children. An easy way to remember the types is:
Salter I: Through physeal plate only
Salter II: Involves metaphysis and physis
Salter III: Involves physis and epiphysis
Salter IV: Extends from metaphysis through physis, into epiphysis
Salter V: Axial force crushes physeal plate
Note: there are an additional 4 types which were added to the original classification, making it a total of 9 types. You can read about them here.
This classic textbook sets out clearly and concisely how to evaluate symptoms and elicit relevant physical signs. It describes the practical skills which every clinician must acquire and develop in order to evolve diagnostic procedures and management strategies and plans. ‘Highly Commended’ in the 2006 and 2010 BMA Medical Book Competitions, this Thirteenth Edition contains over 500 clinical photographs and diagrams to illustrate the text, with new topics added to make the book even more comprehensive.
This Thirteenth Edition has four sections:
- History taking and general examination.
- System examination covering symptoms and signs.
- Examination in special situations including babies & children and the critically ill.
- Assessing clinical examination techniques
The mini–mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to screen for cognitive impairment. It is commonly used in medicine to screen for dementia. It is also used to estimate the severity of cognitive impairment and to follow the course of cognitive changes in an individual over time, thus making it an effective way to document an individual’s response to treatment.
In about 10 minutes it samples functions including arithmetic, memory and orientation. Any score greater than or equal to 25 points (out of 30) indicates a normal cognition. Below this, scores can indicate severe (≤9 points), moderate (10-18 points) or mild (19-24 points) cognitive impairment.