Steve JobsApple Inc : ” Apple has lost a visionary and creative genius, and the world has lost an amazing human being. Those of us who have been fortunate enough to know and work with Steve have lost a dear friend and an inspiring mentor. Steve leaves behind a company that only he could have built, and his spirit will forever be the foundation of Apple.”

iOS 5 logoToday apple announced the long-waited iPhone 4S, the most amazing iPhone yet. The most important new features are:
* Dual-core A5 chip
* All-new 8MP camera and optics
* iOS 5 and iCloud
* Also introducing Siri
The looks and feels are just like the iPhone 4. It comes in both black and white flavors. The processor however is two times faster than that of the iPhone 4 and four times faster than that of the iPhone 3GS with 7x faster graphics. The new camera is just amazing with the ability to record 1080p HD videos. The new iOS contains more than 200 new features including the notification center which I like very much, iMessages, twitter integration and to-do lists. Now with iCloud, you can store your contents and push them wirelessly to all your other devices. Siri is a new aritifical-intelligence-like app that uses your voice to send messages, set reminders, search for information, and more. This new iPhone will be available to order on October 14th with 16GB, 32GB and 64GB memory starting at 199$.

Merriam-Webster's Medical DictionaryMerriam-Webster Medical Dictionary is a concise guide to the essential language of medicine.

Dictionary details:
• Dictionary database contains over 39,000 entries.
• Comprehensive guide to the essential language of medicine.
• Covers brand names and generic equivalents of common drugs.

These notes are to be added to Dr.Karukh’s Cell Injury handout:
Hypoxia results from:
1) Ischemia
2) Hypoxemia
3) Hemoglobin abnormalities (anemia, CO poisoning, methemoglobinemia)

Mechanisms of cell injury (headlines):
1) ATP depletion
2) Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
3) Influx of calcium
4) Increased permeability of cellular membranes
5) Mitochondrial damage
6) Accumulation of damaged DNA & misfolded proteins

Patterns of necrosis:
1) Coagulative necrosis: seen in ischemic necrosis of solid organs.
2) Liquefactive necrosis: seen in abscess of solid organs and brain infarcts
3) Fat necrosis: in fatty tissue. Note: calcium appears blue in light microscopy because it likes hematoxylin stain.
4) Caseous necrosis: it is highly characteristic of TB (tuberculosis), but not diagnostic. (90% in TB, 10% in rhinophyma [rosacea])
A caseation is a homogenous eosinophilic acellular material, usually found in the center of a granuloma.
Layers of a caseating granuloma from inside out:
a) Caseation: necrotic tissue [central].
b) 3-4 layers of epitheloid macrophages [activated macrophages with large amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm].
c) 2-3 layers of lymphocytes stimulating the macrophages by cytokines so that they become bigger and more capable of phagocytosis.
5) Gangrenous necrosis: coagulative or liquefactive necrosis of the limbs.

We have two types of irreversible cell injury: apoptosis and necrosis.

Councilman body: is an apoptotic liver cell seen during viral hepatitis.

Q// What is the difference between apoptosis and necrosis?

Apoptosis Necrosis
1) It involves individual cells. 1) It involves a group of cells.
2) It is an active process (energy-requiring). 2) It is a passive process (no energy required).
3) It is a clean and regulated process in which the cell is broken down into apoptotic bodies that are removed by macrophages. 3) It is a messy process in which the cell is fragmented. It also disrupts the surrounding tissue.
4) There is no inflammatory reaction. 4) It causes an inflammatory reaction.
5) The cell size becomes smaller (shrinkage). 5) The cell size becomes bigger by hydropic swelling.
6) It is mostly a physiological process, sometimes it becomes pathological. 6) It is always a pathological process.