Adobe PDF IconUnless you are from the ice age, you must have heard of PDF files. PDF stands for “Portable Document Format”, it is a document file format created by Adobe. What is great about this format is that unlike other document formats, this one is independent of application software, hardware and operating system. This means that once you convert your files to PDF, it doesn’t matter what fonts or graphics you use, what operating system you use, or what device you use… You are going to get the same file layout everywhere in the world. You can read a PDF file on your Windows machine, on your Mac, or on a Linux. You can read it on a mobile phone running Symbian OS, iOS, Android, or Windows Phone. You can even read it online with software like Google Docs. So today we shall review some of the software that can convert your files to PDF. The basic idea about PDF conversion that almost all programs use, is virtual printing. The program creates a virtual printer for you so that you can print (convert) your files into a PDF format from any application with the Print function. Some of the factors that we need to consider in choosing the best virtual printer are speed of conversion, quality of conversion, output size of the PDF and whether or not the software is free. Our contestants are: Adobe PDF printer, PrimoPDF, PDFFill and 7-PDF. The results of the tests were as follows:
Fastest Conversion: PrimoPDF
Slowest Conversion: Adobe PDF
Smallest file size: Adobe PDF
Largest file size: PrimoPDF
Sharpest Image rendering: PrimoPDF
Normal text rendering: Almost the same for all
So in the top choices there are Adobe PDF and PrimoPDF. After printing the PDFs on paper it turns out that the best choice is PrimoPDF. Why PrimoPDF? Well, first it is free unlike Adobe PDF which comes with Adobe Acrobat which is not free. It has several convertion modes and output formats which you can choose according to your needs. It is very simple to use. You can even convert your files by dragging-and-dropping onto the application icon on your desktop. You can download it here.

Last Update: 22/10/2011
Group A
Q1) Describe metaplasia, give an example, mention it’s mechanism?
Q2) Write the differences between transudate and exudate and mention the benefits of exudate?

Group B
Q1) What are the differences between 1st and 2nd intention healing?
Q2) Enumerate the types of pigment accumulations and describe one of them?

Group C
Q1) What are the local and systemic factors that affect healing?
Q2) Enumerate the types of adaptive cell responses and discuss one of them?

Group D
Q1) Discuss fatty change in details?
Q2) Enumerate the types of histiocytes?

Group E
Q1) Describe the mechanisms of intracellular killing?
Q2) Briefly discuss the intracellular accumulation of iron?

Group F
Q1) What is the cause of increased permeability during inflammatory response?
Q2) Describe the role of oxygen in cell injury?

Today during clinical medicine session we had a case of HHT (Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia). A female, single (unmarried) patient of 46 years old from Mosul presented with Epistaxis (nosebleeds), Hematemesis (vomiting of blood), Melena (black stool) and anemia. She had been suffering from this condition for three years with a family history of the same condition. HHT is a hereditary condition transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion, and occurs in one in 5,000 people. It is also called Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome that leads to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and often in organs such as the lungs, liver and brain. Treatment focuses on reducing bleeding from blood vessel lesions, and sometimes surgery or other targeted interventions to remove arteriovenous malformations in organs.