This rare disease is characterized by episodic weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, and dysmorphic features (short stature, scoliosis, clinodactyly, hypertelorism, small or prominent low-set ears, micrognathia, and broad forehead). The cardiac arrhythmias are potentially serious and life threatening. They include long QT, ventricular ectopy, bidirectional ventricular arrhythmias, and tachycardia. For many years, the classification of this disorder was uncertain because episodes of weakness are associated with elevated, normal, or reduced levels of potassium during an attack. In addition, the potassium levels differ among kindreds but are consistent within a family. Inheritance is autosomal dominant, with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. The disease is caused by mutations of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir 2.1) gene that heighten muscle cell excitability. The treatment is similar to that for other forms of periodic paralysis and must include cardiac monitoring. The episodes of weakness may differ between patients because of potassium variability. Acetazolamide may decrease the attack frequency and severity.

Source: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 19e

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a syndrome of multiple congenital anomalies characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, feeding difficulties, psychomotor delay, behavioral problems, and associated malformations that mainly involve the upper extremities. Cornelia de Lange first described it as a distinct syndrome in 1933, although Brachmann had described a child with similar features in 1916. Diagnosing classic cases of Cornelia de Lange syndrome is usually straightforward; however, diagnosing mild cases may be challenging, even for an experienced clinician.

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Howdy! Since many students don’t know what to study for the exam, I decided to post the most important topics to cover.

Long Case

The most important topics have been made into a list by Dr. Rawa Muhsin, here it is:

You can study these topics in the handouts or a concise book like the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Surgery.

Note: in addition to the above topics, intracranial hematomas, skull fractures & shunts are important for neurosurgery.


Note: the contents (i.e. amount of Na, Cl…etc) of the fluid types are required for this exam.

Instruments & Drains
Dr. Rawa Muhsin’s Handout for the theory.

Dr. Shirwan’s presentation for the images & some notes.

A quick video by Ranj & Rekan:

Some additional urology instuments:

Orthopedics Examination
Review the theory in Short Practice of Surgery:

Review the videos from University Hospitals Coventry & Warwickshire:

This Slideshare account contains some of our tutorials, including those of Dr. Aram Baram, Dr. Khalid Shukur…etc

Good luck 🙂