This rare disease is characterized by episodic weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, and dysmorphic features (short stature, scoliosis, clinodactyly, hypertelorism, small or prominent low-set ears, micrognathia, and broad forehead). The cardiac arrhythmias are potentially serious and life threatening. They include long QT, ventricular ectopy, bidirectional ventricular arrhythmias, and tachycardia. For many years, the classification of this disorder was uncertain because episodes of weakness are associated with elevated, normal, or reduced levels of potassium during an attack. In addition, the potassium levels differ among kindreds but are consistent within a family. Inheritance is autosomal dominant, with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. The disease is caused by mutations of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir 2.1) gene that heighten muscle cell excitability. The treatment is similar to that for other forms of periodic paralysis and must include cardiac monitoring. The episodes of weakness may differ between patients because of potassium variability. Acetazolamide may decrease the attack frequency and severity.

Source: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 19e

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a syndrome of multiple congenital anomalies characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, feeding difficulties, psychomotor delay, behavioral problems, and associated malformations that mainly involve the upper extremities. Cornelia de Lange first described it as a distinct syndrome in 1933, although Brachmann had described a child with similar features in 1916. Diagnosing classic cases of Cornelia de Lange syndrome is usually straightforward; however, diagnosing mild cases may be challenging, even for an experienced clinician.

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Howdy! Since many students don’t know what to study for the exam, I decided to post the most important topics to cover.

Long Case

The most important topics have been made into a list by Dr. Rawa Muhsin, here it is:

You can study these topics in the handouts or a concise book like the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Surgery.

Note: in addition to the above topics, intracranial hematomas, skull fractures & shunts are important for neurosurgery.


Note: the contents (i.e. amount of Na, Cl…etc) of the fluid types are required for this exam.

Instruments & Drains
Dr. Rawa Muhsin’s Handout for the theory.

Dr. Shirwan’s presentation for the images & some notes.

A quick video by Ranj & Rekan:

Some additional urology instuments:

Orthopedics Examination
Review the theory in Short Practice of Surgery:

Review the videos from University Hospitals Coventry & Warwickshire:

This Slideshare account contains some of our tutorials, including those of Dr. Aram Baram, Dr. Khalid Shukur…etc

Good luck 🙂

Turritopsis dohrniiTurritopsis dohrnii, the immortal jellyfish, is a species of small, biologically immortal jellyfish found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the waters of Japan. It is the only known case of an animal capable of reverting completely to a sexually immature, colonial stage after having reached sexual maturity as a solitary individual.

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MTSMirror-touch synesthesia is a condition which causes individuals to experience the same sensation (such as touch) that another person feels. For example, if someone with this condition were to observe someone touching their cheek, they would feel the same sensation on their own cheek. Synesthesia, in general, is described as a condition in which a stimulus causes an individual to experience an additional sensation. Synesthesia is usually a developmental condition, however recent research has shown that mirror touch synesthesia can be acquired after sensory loss after amputation.

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OHCMNow in its ninth edition, the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine continues to be the definitive pocket-friendly guide to medicine. The culmination over 25 years of experience at the bedside and in the community, this handbook is packed with practical advice, wit, and wisdom.

The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine presents clinical information in a clear way that makes it easy to revise, remember, and implement on the ward. It gives reliable advice on what to do, when to do it, and how to do it, with clinical photographs and diagrams that bring theory to life. Uniquely for a medical text, this book weaves history, literature, art, and philosophy into its survey of medicine, casting new light on the specialties and encouraging the reader to see beyond the practical aspects of medicine and adopt a patient-centred approach to care.

The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine looks better than ever, with a more modern design and over 600 colour images and illustrations. The History and Examination chapter has been completely revamped with systematic flowcharts and new illustrations so that it better reflects real bedside practice. The index, cross-references, and references have been overhauled to make them even easier to use. Every chapter has been written with supervision from experts in each field to ensure accuracy, and updated to reflect relevant guidelines from the NHS, NICE, the Resuscitation Council and other key proffesional bodies.

Loved and trusted by generations of doctors, the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine continues to be an indispensable companion for the practice of modern medicine.